Project: We Ride for You
Company: ZKM Gdynia (organising authority)
City: Gdynia, POLAND
Case study: The fact that Gdynia Public Transport Authority (ZKM) consistently cares for its passengers has ensured 50% public transport market share. This has been achieved thanks to tailoring the offer to transport demand, control of services quality and constant monitoring and regulation of public transport traffic flow. The fleet of 341 vehicles includes 236 buses- 16 equipped with low–fume extraction engine, 85 electric powered trolleybuses and 20 minibuses. 40% of trolleybuses is additionally equipped with independent drive as back-up. 80% of the fleet is run by communal owners whilst the remaining 20% by sub-contractors. The services of all operators are controlled by ZKM making the system fully integrated. A network of 96 direct connections is a strong merit considering the city population of 247 000 plus adjoining municipalities with 100 000 inhabitants. Along with 100% low floor vehicles ZKM ensures special on-demand transport for disabled. Another convenience for passengers is an audio-visual information system notifying about the next stop and a wide variety of ticket distribution channels i.e. at driver’s (single fares), via text message, online: e-tickets and season tickets which do not require activation at a top-up point (the system instantly charges the credits after online purchase). ZKM is part of metropolis transport system covering 14 municipalities – one ticket is valid over the whole area. All timetables are available online incl. an electronic journey planner application based on real life data taking current traffic conditions into account. Complex marketing research of citizens’ preferences and pattern behaviours is conducted regularly in order to improve the service quality. Additionally, mystery passengers help verify this data. The ticket prices are relatively low plus a wide network of passenger groups are entitled to fare discounts and free of charge travel. Passengers are provided with more than just standard information pack eg. safe travel with trolleys or rules of passenger-driver communication at on –demand stop (pointing with a shining mobile phone display at an incoming bus). Commuting behaviour forming campaigns are organised for the youth and children aimed at building an awareness in the field of energetically balanced and sustainable city transport.
1. ECO attitude: Network of 341 vehicles, incl. 85 electric-powered trolleybuses and 16 buses equipped with low–fume extraction engine
2. Accessibility (awarded with Access City Award 2013):
- 100% low-floor vehicles – access ramp enables special height adjustment that permit a stationary vehicle to temporarily lower itself to ground level or in a form of a nearly level entry ramp
- Special on-demand transport for disabled– minibus transfer prices start from €2. Service available based on prior booking via phone, available every day
- Audio-visual information notifying about the next stop
- Wide variety of ticket distribution channels, i.e. at driver’s (single fares), via text message, online: e-tickets and top-up cards which do not require activation at a top-up point (the system instantly charges the credits).
- Timetable available online incl. a journey planner
3. Intelligent traffic control:
- Traffic Control Centre –eliminates traffic flow disruptions, ensures high degree of regularity and punctuality
- TriStar system (The TriCity area– Sopot and Gdansk) – intelligent traffic control system gives priority to buses at traffic light controlled crossroads; passengers receive precise information about the remaining bus waiting time exactly to the minute (from 2014); journey planner with real life data taking current traffic conditions into account
- 100% monitored vehicles incl. audio recording
- Random police control
5. Social Innovations:
- Car-Free Day- free public transport based on showing the car registration certificate
- Commuting behaviour forming campaigns addressed to children - build an awareness in the field of energetically balanced and sustainable city transport
6. Control of sub-contractors: eg. Temperature in vehicles - degree of roof-window openness based on outdoor temperature
7. Tailoring of services: The core basis is conducting complex marketing research of citizens’ preferences and pattern behaviours which helps to consistently adjust the offer to passengers’ expectations and to tailor-make the services based on changing tendencies. ZKM has also developed and implemented a financial settlement system with municipalities adjoining Gdynia thanks to which services are provided on the basis of specially dedicated analysis of demand and profitability of each bus route.
8. Application of academic attainments in business management: ZKM effectively applies the academic attainments of its employees in daily business management. This covers best practices gained within economics – 50% of the team has a university degree incl. 1 professor, 3 PhD degrees (1 senior doctor lecturer distinction).
PTx2 strategy: With public transport market share reaching 50% in Gdynia, the sector’s ambition of doubling the public transport market share does not take into account the realities of Central Europe’s countries economic transformation. In Gdynia it was reflected by a rapid growth of the society motorisation rate in Poland over the past 20 years (from 190 vehicles per capita in 1990 up to 500 in 2012). Compared to other European cities, public transport market share in Gdynia is relatively high. This creates a strategic challenge for Gdynia public transport authorities to act against current public transport market share decline and maintain its level by 2025. Strong merits of the current transport system will be continued i.e. effective management, tailor-made offer based on citizens’ preferences and commuting behaviours, economic financial solutions developed for sub-contractors creating a competition factor and positively influencing the prices. A threat to the above are legal restrictions (both Polish and European) which regulate and encourage re-monopolisation. Despite these unfavourable external conditions, ZKM has managed to extend its offering from 14,7 mln vehicle-km rate in 1992 to 19,5 mln in 2012 (33% growth). This further shows that current system should be continued to maintain the market share level by 2025.
Public transport market share reaches 50% in Gdynia (along with the society motorisation rate of 500 vehicles per capita). Therefore, the core aim of public transport policy is not to increase its market share but to maintain it. In Gdynia, it will be achieved by:
- Caring for complex information provision for passengers - possible thanks to TriStar system which will be implemented in 2014 (covering The TriCity area with adjoining cities – Sopot and Gdansk). The system has the following functions: intelligent traffic control system gives priority to buses at traffic light controlled crossroads; passengers receive precise information about the remaining bus waiting time; electronic supervision and traffic steering control; electronic journey planner based on real life data taking current traffic conditions into account. Available online and at bus stops in busy areas of the city.
- Educational programmes for the youth and children forming commuting behaviour based on energetically balanced and sustainable city transport
- Promotion of collective transport
- Complex marketing research of citizens’ preferences and pattern behaviours
- One ticket valid over the whole Tricity metropolis i.e. 14 municipalities
- Development of sustainable urban transport plans
- Bus lanes dedicated to public transport only